• 1991 - Operation Provide Comfort and Northern Watch

    When Iraqi forces subdued the 1991 uprising, more than one million Kurdish refugees fled to Iran and Turkey. In addition, hundreds of thousands of additional Kurds remained along the border of Iraq and Turkey, where thousands died due to a lack of food, water, clothing, blankets, shelter, and

  • 1991 - Operation Southern Watch

     In April 1991, shortly after the United States and its coalition allies expelled Iraqi military forces from Kuwait in Operation Desert Storm, the United States established a no-fly zone over northern Iraq. This was followed shortly by the establishment of a similar zone over southern Iraq to

  • 1992 - NATO Operation Sky Monitor

    NATO aircraft monitored the No-Fly Zone declared by the United Nations Security Council against flights by military aircraft of the warring factions over Bosnia during the fighting in Former Yugoslavia. This operation was followed by the enforcement operation known as DENY FLIGHT.

  • 1993 - Operation Deny Flight

    As a follow-on to the monitoring operation of Op. SKY MONITOR, NATO aircraft enforced the UN Security Council’s No-Fly Zone over Bosnia. Subsequent additions to Operation DENY FLIGHT included Close Air Support to UN peacekeepers and air strikes in support of UN resolutions. On 28 February 1994 NATO

  • 1995 - Operation Deliberate Force

    After a mortar attack caused heavy loss of life at a marketplace in Sarajevo, UN peacekeepers requested NATO airstrikes, which began on 30 August against Bosnian Serb air defenses (Operation DEADEYE). When a bombing pause failed to result in Bosnian Serb compliance with the UN’s demands to withdraw,

  • 1996 - Operation Desert Strike

     On August 31, 1996, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered 30-40,000 Iraqi troops to invade the city of Erbil in Kurdish northern Iraq during the Kurdish civil war. At the time, such action placed Saddam Hussein in violation of United Nations resolutions forbidding the repression of Iraq's ethnic

  • 1998 - Operation Desert Fox

    In response to Saddam Hussein's continued refusal to cooperate with U.N. weapons inspectors, the United States Government planned Operation DESERT FOX in the fall of 1998. The primary mission of DESERT FOX was to strike military targets in Iraq that contributed to its ability to produce, store,

  • 1999 - Operation Allied Force

    NATO's air campaign against the former Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and its forces deployed in Kosovo. During this operation NATO used a wide range of aircraft and naval weapons against the FRY.

  • 2000 - JTF History of Operation Atlas Response

    U.S. European Command put together Joint Task Force Atlas Response to provide humanitarian assistance to Mozambique where hundreds of thousands of residents were driven from their homes by floods in 2000.

  • 2001 - Operation Enduring Freedom

    After the terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001, the United States government determined to respond with force against those responsible. Additionally, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) invoked the "mutual defense clause" for the first time in its history in